A resource detailing the various non-immigrant visas that U.S. employers use to bring temporary foreign workers to the U.S.
Each page contains detailed information summarizing key points of each visa, its history, the hiring process, data, basic regulatory scheme, enforcement mechanisms, and challenges it poses in seeking justice for migrants across borders.
In May 2012, Justice in Motion published Visas, Inc.: Corporate Control and Policy Incoherence in the Temporary Labor System. Visas, Inc. was the first panoramic investigation of U.S.temporary work visas. The findings revealed a fragmented system that lacks transparency and government oversight, resulting in abuse of both foreign and U.S workers. Indeed, U.S. immigration policy has moved away from its roots in permanent labor migration and embraced an array of utterly chaotic, constantly metastasizing temporary worker visa programs. Rather than developing a coherent, unitary system, the U.S. has responded piecemeal to employer demands and created a patchwork of visas subject to distinct rules.
To curtail abuse and misuse, Justice in Motion believes that future reform must happen holistically, with the recognition that these individual visas constitute a de facto temporary foreign labor system. By maintaining Visa Pages as an online resource, Justice in Motion seeks to advance an informed conversation around the future of temporary foreign worker programs in the U.S.
61,865 visas issued in 2020*
97,623 visas issued in 2019
124,983 visas issued in 2020*
188,123 visas issued in 2019
108,510 visas issued in 2020*
353,279 visas issued in 2019
78,537 visas issued
30% of L-1 visas originate in India
The L-1 nonimmigrant visa program allows multinational employers to bring to the U.S. as intracompany transfers their current or former foreign employees who are managers or executives or who have specialized knowledge.
35,942 visas issued in 2020*
76,988 visas issued in 2019
415/149 visas issued in 2020*
857/404 visas issued in 2019
111,387 visas issued in 2020*
364,204 visas issued in 2019
43,421 visas issued
21% of B-1 visas originate in Philippines
The B-1 business visitor visa is available for a wide variety of business travelers, including domestic workers who are employed by U.S. citizens or nonimmigrants, trainees (B-1 in lieu of H-3), and high-skilled workers employed by foreign companies (B-1 in lieu of H-1B).
17,919 visas issued in 2020*
37,841 visas issued in 2019
Data Source: U.S. Department of State
*2020 visa numbers reflect lower overall visa numbers because of Executive Action restricting certain visas specifically and reduced participation generally due to the coronavirus pandemic
The Justice in Motion team would like to recognize the following individuals who have contributed to the Visa Pages project since 2013. For the 2017 update, Kathleen Griesbach, Carol Brooke, Gillian Gillers, and Stacie Jonas reviewed and edited select portions of content, and Bea Abbott and Jessica Diaz-Hurtado provided data, chart and graphs support. Legal Director Nan Schivone drafted content for the original edition of Visa Pages published in 2014, based on research and writing of Ashwini Sukthankar and Philip Simon for Visas, Inc. Agnew::Beck Consulting - provided graphic design and Jill Hubley provided web support for the original web edition.